One will risk being roundly condemned if he, or she, points out the serious bottleneck that is presented when a community attempts, through the democratic process, to set plans for positive social action. A man is not permitted to hesitate about its merits, without the suspicion of being a friend to tyranny, that is, of being a foe to mankind? What is likely required for the masses of people, as we see in "modern" world societies, is an established system of government. Where there is a need for an established system of government, it will likely naturally come about; and do so, whether, or not, it has the consent of the people, -- real or imagined.
Number of Individuals with Internet Access: Despite increasing reliance on digital technologies in every area of communication in Italy, the term "press" still mainly connotes the daily newspapers.
Italy's daily newspapers have five distinguishing characteristics that set this medium apart from its counterpart in other west European countries: The first characteristic is the one most often stressed by analysts of the Italian press.
Compared with other member countries of the European Union EUItaly's aggregate daily newspaper circulation the social indicator used as a proxy to measure readership ranks just above Greece and Portugal, the two least advanced Mediterranean European Union EU members.
Paolo Mancini reports that aggregate daily newspaper circulation in Italy stood at per thousand citizens inand he remarked that this is very low indeed when one considers that the comparable figure is near in Norway Throughout most of the twentieth century, readership of daily newspapers was constant at about five million.
There was a small increase in the s, fueled by a turn to commercialization of the press, to a high 6. This figure of 6 million was computed by taking the annual circulation of daily periodicals, 2.
This also means that aggregate daily newspaper circulation has decreased to per thousand persons. There are several direct and indirect causes of the low-readership phenomenon. A direct cause is related to the logistics of matching the reader with the paper.
As is typical in other European nations, newspaper distribution in Italy is conducted almost exclusively via newsstands. However, for a variety of reasons related to permit requirements and attempts by operators to limit competition, the number of newsstands in Italy per persons is below that in Germany and France.
Another technical problem is the fact that prices are determined by a joint committee of government and business, and have inevitably crept up. In addition to pointing to availability of newsstands and price per copy, we can address the obvious question: True, Italians are not avid readers, but this statement needs to be qualified.
According to a survey conducted in Lumley 4nearly two thirds of the population reported never reading anything at all. Regional differences are significant, however.
Until the fifties, Italy's population outside the major urban centers was mainly rural and poor, and illiteracy was still fairly high in the Mezzogiorno region and in rural areas in general. Almost four fifths of the population spoke a local dialect and were not very familiar with Italian.
In some local dialects, the lira was referred to as the franc, while in another it was called a pfennig, which lends testimony to Italy's much more fragmented history.
Italian is still in the process of becoming the language that every Italian is comfortable with, and much of the new vocabulary, including technical and specialized language transliterated from other languages, was slow to trickle down to the less educated tier of the population.
More often than not, Italian journalists writing for major daily papers did not engage in concerted efforts to translate or explain unfamiliar words to their reading public. Literacy rates increased in the next two decades, and most Italians were now able to read a newspaper.
Yet, they still chose not to do so, for a variety of reasons, including alienation from bureaucracy and journalistic jargon used by the press, the non-availability of popular magazines and dailies, and the fact that a high proportion of the potential readership, women in particular, felt excluded from the mainstream public sphere Lumley 4.
Other types of media have a higher appeal to this population. Since the s, radio and TV were the media of choice. More recently, it is not surprising that newspaper circulation decreased in the last decade, due to increased reliance on the Internet for access to daily news. The predominance of regional over national newspapers in Italy is striking.
One reason for this phenomenon is that the capital, Rome, is not an international center on the order of New York, Paris, or London, while several cities in northern Italy, notably Milan and Turin in the northwest, Bologna and Venice in the northeast, are important urban centers.
While some regional newspapers have a high circulation and are nationally distributed, they tend to convey a regional bias that is often linked to the family that owns the paper. This has been the case for Il Corriere della Serawhose owners have long imposed their own Milanese bias, and for La Stampaowned by the Agnelli family of Turin, who are the major stockholders of the Fiat Company and who impart a Piedmontese bias to this nationally distributed paper.
The lack of a truly national newspaper leaves room for many regional and multi-regional papers, e. The third characteristic of the Italian daily press, its lack of independence, is intertwined with the previous one. Ownership by rich families, industrial groups and other financial power centers is typical, with often many newspapers published by the same group.
A notable non-industrial financial center is the Catholic Church, which supports publication of the widely circulated daily paper of the Vatican, L'Osservatore Romano.
In past decades, it was also typical to see daily newspapers published by political parties, which used the medium to circulate information to their members. While the Italian reading public is small, it is politically savvy.
Italians display high percentages of party membership and voting turn-out, and membership is also high in labor unions and in a variety of cultural, professional and political interest groups Mancini The Role of the Media in Influencing Political Attitudes in a Democracy Essay - The Role of the Media in Influencing Political Attitudes in a Democracy Introduction The public gets political information on their preferred candidates or parties from different people and through the media.
40 (Volume 20, No. 1) March, Introduction by The Editors. SOCIALISM AND DEMOCRACY AT Frank Rosengarten – Looking Back in Order to Look Ahead: Twenty Years of Research and Publishing by the Research Group on Socialism and Democracy Victor Wallis – Socialism and Democracy During the First 20 Years of Socialism and Democracy.
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