Anders Gustav Ekeberg isolated beryllium from the gadolinite but failed to recognize other elements that the ore contained.
Posted on April 5, by energyskeptic [ Yet another wise, thoughtful, and wide-ranging essay from my favorite writer of the many facets of a civilization about to decline as it is starved of the fossil fuels that feed it.
Although the topics are quite varied, Heinberg weaves them into a cloth that is more than the sum of the parts in explaining how the future may unfold. Juggling Live Hand Grenades. Here are a few useful recent contributions to the global sustainability conversation, with relevant comments interspersed.
Toward the end of this essay I offer some general thoughts about converging challenges to the civilizational system. Once upon a time it was assumed that as world oil supplies were depleted and burned, prices would simply march upward until they either crashed the economy or incentivized both substitute fuels and changes to systems that use petroleum mainly transportation.
The authors find, in short, that before oil production begins to decline, high prices incentivize new production without affecting demand too much, while low prices incentivize rising demand without reducing production too much.
However, because oil is a key factor of economic production, a depleting non-renewable resource, and is hard to replace, conventional economic theory does a lousy job describing the declining phase of extraction.
It turns out that once depletion has proceeded to the point where extraction rates start to decline, the relationship between oil prices and the economy shifts significantly. The system becomes self-destabilizing, the economy stagnates or contracts, the oil industry invests less in future production capacity, and oil production rates begin to fall faster and faster.
Our analysis and empirical evidence are consistent with oil being a fundamental quantity in economic production.
Our analysis indicates that once the contraction period for oil extraction begins, price dynamics will accelerate the decline in extraction rates: We believe that the contraction period in oil extraction has begun and that policy makers should be making contingency plans.
As I was reading this paper, the following thoughts crossed my mind. Rather, its shortcoming was twofold: The Hirsch Report of showed that that change of trajectory would need to start at least a decade before the peak in order to achieve the goal of averting collapse.
As it turned out, the peak oil movement did provide society with a decade of warning, but there was no trajectory change on the part of policy makers. Instead, many pundits clouded the issue by spending that crucial decade deriding the peak oil argument because of insufficient predictive accuracy on the part of some of its proponents.
The message itself should be no surprise. In any case, with prices not high enough to generate profits, the industry has no choice but to cut back on investments, and that means production will soon start to lag. Nasser said that the oil market was getting closer to rebalancing supply and demand, but the short-term market still points to a surplus as U.
Nasser went on to point out that conventional oil discoveries have more than halved during the past four years. The Saudis have never promoted the notion of peak oil. No doubt he would argue that resources are plentiful; the problem lies with prices and investment levels.
Never mention depletion; that would give away the game. BioPhysical Economics and Resource Quality, 2: Unfortunately EROI calculations tend to be slippery because they depend upon system boundaries. Draw a close boundary around an energy production system and you are likely to arrive at a higher EROI calculation; draw a wide boundary, and the EROI ratio will be lower.
None of the plans reviewed here including those by Mark Jacobson and co-authors passes muster. Clearly, it is possible to reduce fossil fuels while partly replacing them with wind and solar, using current fossil generation capacity as a fallback this is already happening in many countries.
But getting to percent renewables will be very difficult and expensive.Are Thorium Reactors the Future of Nuclear Energy? Amanda Kay - April 30th, Thorium reactors hold promise as an alternative for uranium in the nuclear energy sector, but are they really a.
For anxious neighbors, though, the tough talk backed up with firepower delivered over a three-decade military buildup, is sending an unnerving signal that a rising China may be ready to use force.
Henry Ford’s Amazing "Hemp" Automobile Not many people know that Henry ford once built a car constructed of a plastic made from farm crops. He envisioned auto engines built to run on bio-diesel manufactured from hemp, although the engine made for his first Model T, .
The table below presents an abbreviated geologic time scale, with times and events germane to this essay. Please refer to a complete geologic time scale when this one seems inadequate.
[ This is from the Seneca Effect written by somebody in the Netherlands, wish I knew who, he or she is quite brilliant. Alice Friedemann heartoftexashop.com author of “When Trucks Stop Running: Energy and the Future of Transportation”, , Springer and “Crunch!
Whole Grain Artisan Chips and Crackers”. This paper was originally reviewed and published in the Meta Research Bulletin, Volume 10, Number 3, September 15, by Meta Research, Inc, a scientific non-profit corporation dedicated to supporting promising but unpopular alternative ideas in astronomy.