Either political analysis of authoritarian regimes, or interesting facts about science, depending on my mood. The title of this essay should disturb you. Tolerance is not a moral absolute; it is a peace treaty. But the model of a peace treaty differs from the model of a moral precept in one simple way:
The Spanish-Dutch treaty was signed on January 30, EnglandPolandRussiaand the Ottoman Empire were the only European powers that were not represented at the two assemblies. Some scholars of international relations credit the treaties with providing the foundation of the modern state system and articulating the concept of territorial sovereignty.
The delegates The chief representative of the Holy Roman emperor was Maximilian, Graf count von Trauttmansdorffto whose sagacity the conclusion of peace was largely due. Sweden was represented by John Oxenstierna, son of the chancellor of that name, and by John Adler Salvius, who had previously acted for Sweden in negotiating the Treaty of Hamburg Brandenburgrepresented by Johann, Graf von Sayn-Wittgenstein, played the foremost part among the Protestant states of the empire.
On June 1,France and Sweden brought forward propositions of peace, which were discussed by the estates of the empire from October to April The settlement of religious matters was effected between February and March The war continued during the deliberations.
The decisions Under the terms of the peace settlement, a number of countries received territories or were confirmed in their sovereignty over territories. The territorial clauses all favoured Sweden, France, and their allies.
Sweden obtained western Pomerania with the city of Stettinthe port of Wismarthe archbishopric of Bremenand the bishopric of Verden. France obtained sovereignty over Alsace and was confirmed in its possession of MetzTouland Verdunwhich it had seized a century before; France thus gained a firm frontier west of the Rhine River.
Brandenburg obtained eastern Pomerania and several other smaller territories. Bavaria was able to keep the Upper Palatinatewhile the Rhenish Palatinate was restored to Charles Louis, the son of the elector palatine Frederick V. Two other important results of the territorial settlement were the confirmation of the United Provinces of the Netherlands and the Swiss Confederation as independent republics, thus formally recognizing a status which those two states had actually held for many decades.
Apart from these territorial changes, a universal and unconditional amnesty to all those who had been deprived of their possessions was declared, and it was decreed that all secular lands with specified exceptions should be restored to those who had held them in Even more important than the territorial redistribution was the ecclesiastical settlement.
The Peace of Westphalia confirmed the Peace of Augsburgwhich had granted Lutherans religious tolerance in the empire and which had been rescinded by the Holy Roman emperor Ferdinand II in his Edict of Restitution Within these limits the member states of the empire were bound to allow at least private worship, liberty of conscienceand the right of emigration to all religious minorities and dissidents within their domains.
These measures of toleration did not extend to non-Catholics in the hereditary lands of the house of Habsburghowever. The difficult question of the ownership of spiritual lands was decided by a compromise. By the important provision that a prince should forfeit his lands if he changed his religion, an obstacle was placed in the way of a further spread of both the Reformation and the Counter-Reformation.
The declaration that all protests or vetoes of the Peace of Westphalia by whomsoever pronounced should be null and void dealt a blow at the intervention of the Roman Curia in German affairs. The constitutional changes made by the treaty had far-reaching effects.
The Peace of Westphalia recognized the full territorial sovereignty of the member states of the empire. They were empowered to contract treaties with one another and with foreign powers, provided that the emperor and the empire suffered no prejudice. By this and other changes the princes of the empire became absolute sovereigns in their own dominions.
The Holy Roman emperor and the Diet were left with a mere shadow of their former power. Not only was the central authority of the empire replaced almost entirely by the sovereignty of about princes, but the power of the empire was materially weakened in other ways.
It lost about 40, square milessquare km of territory and obtained a frontier against France that was incapable of defense. Sweden and France as guarantors of the peace acquired the right of interference in the affairs of the empire, and Sweden also gained a voice in its councils as a member of the Diet.
For many years Germany thus became the principal theatre of European diplomacy and war, and the natural development of German national unity was delayed.The term “weapons of mass destruction” (WMD) was first expressly defined by the United Nations in as “atomic explosive weapons, radioactive material weapons, lethal chemical and biological weapons, and any weapons developed in the future which have characteristics comparable in.
Envisioning the United Nations in the Twenty-first Century Proceedings of the Inaugural Symposium on the United Nations System in the Twenty-first Century. Edition used: Cesare Bonesana di Beccaria, An Essay on Crimes and Punishments. By the Marquis Beccaria of Milan.
With a Commentary by M. de Voltaire. A New Edition Corrected.
(Albany: W.C. Little & . The Westphalia area of north-western Germany gave its name to the treaty that ended the Thirty Years' War, one of the most destructive conflicts in the history of Europe.
Religion, after all, is a powerful constituent of cultural norms and values, and because it addresses the most profound existential issues of human life (e.g., freedom and inevitability, fear and faith, security and insecurity, right and wrong, sacred and profane), religion is deeply implicated in individual and social conceptions of peace.
Lecture 15 Europe and the Superior Being: Napoleon: Frenchmen, you will no doubt recognize in my conduct the zeal of a soldier of liberty and of a devoted citizen of the Republic.