Sex is a natural part of life, and when questions arise, they can be discussed in a matured way without condoning certain behavior.
Moving from Retributive to Restorative Justice in Community Schools Margaret Leah Corey Abstract The use of suspensions as a method of punishment in schools has increased over the past decade.
This disciplinary practice impacts minority students at a disproportionate rate, and has serious implications for students, many of whom discontinue their education because of expulsion or dropping out of the school system.
Consequently, many schools are developing innovative and non-exclusionary disciplinary practices. Rather than rather than having students merely fulfill a punishment, methods of restorative justice require individuals to repair the harm done during a behavioral infraction.
This method holds promise for curtailing the adverse affects of suspension, particularly in the context of full-service community schools. Introduction Out-of-school suspension is one of the most common disciplinary methods used by contemporary K schools.
Administrators rely on suspensions to maintain order and discourage students from breaking school rules. However, this form of discipline has caused considerable controversy, primarily because suspended students lose instruction time while being punished and suspensions have been shown to lead to a greater likelihood of subsequent suspensions, grade retention, expulsion, and incarceration Skiba and Peterson Furthermore, while the rationale given for suspensions is that suspended students pose a risk to other students, most suspensions are not given for acts like bringing a weapon to school, but given for minor infractions like insubordination and tardiness Skiba and Peterson ; Mendez and Knoff In addition to using suspensions for such minor infractions, studies of suspension practices expose the racial dynamics and cultural misunderstandings which inform this disciplinary trend.
Minority students, specifically African Americans, receive significantly more suspensions than their white peers Skiba, Michael, Nardo and Peterson ; Mendez and Knoff What begins with the inadequate nature of school services for minority students, including high student-teacher ratios and poor course relevance, becomes, in the end, further marginalization within, or removal from, the public school system Krezmie, Leone, and Achiles ; Skiba et al.
Full-service community schools, which partner with local agencies, ensure that neighborhood families have access to health care, employment services, community education, and extracurricular activities.
This model represents a promising education reform because it addresses a widening achievement gap through resource allocation, providing for the many families facing external barriers e.
In addition to facilitating connections to community agencies, full-service community schools provide additional opportunities for youth development and mentoring as well as opportunities for continued parent education Dryfoos One way for full-service community schools to continue addressing educational inequities many minority students face is by minimizing the disciplinary role of suspensions.
Disciplinary practices send a message to students and their families regarding what the school accepts as normative behavior and full-service community schools must ensure their disciplinary procedures are consonant with their role as a community school.
Restorative justice represents a promising framework for discipline within the community school; rather than isolating students it re-enforces connections between their actions and the community.
When community schools honor the importance of connections within a given community by using methods of restorative justice, such as mediation and conflict resolution, they promote the development of students as productive citizens.
This paper presents an overview of current disciplinary practices in schools, the implications of these practices, and explains further how restorative justice represents a beneficial alternative to suspensions.
It illustrates the issue through an analysis of one Chicago community school that already utilizes methods of restorative justice. It draws on the example of one K-8 community school, Lakeside, which has incorporated restorative justice practices in order to minimize its use of suspension.
Current Practices The out-of-school suspension is the hallmark of zero-tolerance policies Skiba, Peterson, and Williamsthe rationale for which is to provide a straightforward punishment for violence in school buildings Skiba and Peterson Inthe U.
Congress passed the Gun-Free-Schools Act, which requires all states receiving federal funding for their school system to expel any student caught bringing a firearm to school. African Americans are disproportionately represented in suspension rates and scholars hypothesize that this comes from complex issues that lead to public schools in low-income neighborhoods having high student to teacher ratios, poor course relevance, and poor leadership Krezmien, Leone, and Achiles The study also found that rates increased from elementary school to middle school and decreased after middle school.
The authors hypothesize that the decrease in high school numbers are explained by students dropping out of the school system completely. The long-term ramifications of suspensions are serious for students. Because suspensions remove students from the school building, this form of punishment may lead to students feeling so disconnected from school that they exhibit chronic truancy Skiba and Peterson ; Atkins, McKay, Frazier, Jackobsons, Arvantis, Cunningham, Brown, and Lambrecht Christle, Nelson, and Joliviette studied suspension trends in Kentucky middle schools to understand the school characteristics related to suspension rates.
They calculated Pearson correlation coefficients between suspension and a variety of variables and found a positive correlation between suspension and future disciplinary action, such as suspension, or expulsion. These data suggest that exclusionary punishments make it appear as though schools are addressing problem behaviors when in reality they are merely shifting the problem out of the school and contributing to long term school disengagement.
Noguera argues that zero tolerance policies reassert societal power structures as schools implicitly and explicitly socialize students. Continually suspended students learn that they belong outside school. Suspensions thus begin a cycle of student disengagement.
These exclusionary practices isolate the individuals, mark them as particularly problematic, and fail to provide any way to alter their status. Noguera therefore recommends that educators create caring environments in which teachers model positive behavior and maintain high expectations for all students rather than removing them from the domain of education.
Restorative Justice When Christle, Nelson, and Jolviette sought to find the differences between schools with high and low suspension rates they found that schools with low rates used proactive rather than reactive disciplinary measures, maintained high expectations for their students, and were constantly challenging their students to think critically.
They conclude that discipline must be conceptualized as part of the entire school environment in order to instill positive behavior changes.
The shift from retributive to restorative methods came to education from the field of criminology Hopkins as schools found that they too could utilize mediation and conflict resolution. According to Hopkinsimplementing restorative justice requires a shift in the interventions that schools use to repair harm and in the underlying philosophies that guide all decision making in the school community.Apr 20, · High School Cliques and School Violence There is an overabundant amount of cliques in high schools throughout the United States.
Many teenagers believe the only way to be recognized is to be affiliated with the popular crowd. May 30, · "Since public schools have become over crowded, guns and violence are a daily occurrence, and private schools are so over priced for the average family, home schooling has become an excellent alternative.".
The magnitude of violence in both girls and boys primary schools is quite high and the implications are complicated and frightening (Review on African school violence, ).
This problem in most cases is hidden and not reported by the victims. Mar 16, · When an Ohio high school student killed three classmates in a shooting rampage several weeks ago, it once again brought a national spotlight to a problem widely believed to be epidemic in schools.
Bullying: What Schools, Parents and Students Can Do. Addressing and preventing bullying requires the participation of all major school constituencies, school leaders, teachers, parents, and.
A paper co-authored by Donna Crawford, Director of the National Center for Conflict Resolution Education (NCCRE) and Richard Bodine, NCCRE’s Training Director, details some interesting research about how conflict begins—and that the largest number of conflicts that result in violence often start as relatively minor incidences.